Thursday, December 18, 2008

KNIME 2.0 Adds PMML Import and PMML Export

Zementis is a fervent supporter of open standards for predictive analytics and data mining. As the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) standard continues to gain momentum, we are pleased to see that the open source tool KNIME 2.0 has added support for PMML export and import as part of their latest release.

At Zementis, we have already tested the KNIME PMML export quite extensively and we are excited to report that it works well with ADAPA, our PMML scoring engine.

KNIME 2.0 currently exports models in PMML 3.1 which are automatically converted to the latest PMML format once uploaded in any of the Zementis scoring products.

In addition for the native import/export nodes for PMML, KNIME also provides access to an R node that allows the export of PMML. This node leverages the R PMML export library that Zementis has been supporting and which has been covered extensively in the ADAPA support blog.

The KNIME blog provides a detailed description about how to convert R models into PMML.

Wednesday, November 26, 2008

Talk at the Forum on Analytics - San Diego

In 2008, we gave a talk (11/12/08) at the Forum on Analytics (sponsored by the San Diego Software Industry Council - SDSIC). The talk was entitled "Easy Expression and Execution of Data Mining Models through PMML". Please click here to see the presentation slides. The presentation transcripts follow below (after the abstract).

Presentation Abstract

PMML (Predictive Model Markup Language) is an XML-based language used to define data mining models. It was specified by the Data Mining Group, an independent group of leading technology companies. By providing a uniform standard to represent predictive models, PMML allows for the exchange of predictive solutions between different applications and various vendors. Many statistical packages already support the PMML standard; these include, for example, SAS and SPSS. In an effort to broaden the scientific workbench available to data mining scientists and to support the open source community, Zementis recently contributed code to the R project. In particular, we implemented the export of neural network models built with the nnet R package as well as Support Vector Machines built with the ksvm R package. The same PMML exporter can also produce decision trees built with rpart and linear regression models built with lm. The PMML exporter package is currently available through CRAN (the Comprehensive R Archive Network).

All of the R exported PMML models are readily available to be uploaded into an execution engine for scoring or classification. For example, the ADAPA engine, which can be used for production deployment of PMML models, is currently available as a service in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2).

Our aim here is to show how one can quickly build a data mining model in R, such as a Support Vector Machine, and use the PMML exporter to produce a model file which can be uploaded and executed in a different application. We demonstrate how one can use data containing expected results to verify correct model deployment. If all computed and expected values match, the model can be considered ready for production, i.e. available for generating predictions on incoming data as part of an overall enterprise decision management strategy. From R to ADAPA, we use PMML as an effective way to express and execute data mining models.

Our work shows how PMML can be effectively used to allow for model exchange between different applications. Also, it highlights how one can benefit from an open-source statistical package such as R to easily export models into PMML and upload them into ADAPA, a light-weight scoring engine which consumes several PMML models. The ease of model expression and execution allows data mining scientists to concentrate on the important tasks: data analysis and model building. Real-time, scalable execution is handled through software tools which communicate through a common language, PMML.

Below, please find the transcripts of our talk, organized per slide.

Slide 1 - Title

Slide 2

My talk will be divided in 3 parts all of which are centered around Open Standards. I will start by talking about the Development of Predictive Models using R. I will then talk about Deployment and in doing so I will focus on PMML. Finally, I will talk about the real-time execution of PMML files.

Slide 3

So, R is our software of choice for this presentation, given that it is an open source and a GNU project. R is available for free over the internet. R allows for data manipulation, calculation, and graphical display. It provides a wide variety of statistical techniques and it is highly extensible.

But, how to export models out of R? Once you build your models in R, you can easily export them into PMML.

We recently contributed code to the R PMML package which can now export a variety of modeling techniques which include … to name a few:

Neural Networks
Support Vector Machines
Decision Trees
Regression Models

Slide 4

Great! But, what is PMML? PMML stands for Predictive Model Markup Language. It is an XML-based language which is the de facto standard for exchanging predictive models between compliant applications. For this reason, PMML avoids proprietary issues and incompatibilities

PMML provides a clear separation of tasks in which model deployment easily follows model development. In this way, PMML frees scientists to focus on model building. PMML eliminates the need for custom model deployment. In doing so, it ensures scalability and reliability.

Slide 5

PMML is a mature standard and is widely supported by the industry. It is developed and maintained by the Data Mining Group which is a vendor independent consortium with several major supporters including IBM, Oracle, Microsoft, SAS, SPSS, Fair Isaac and Zementis.

Slide 6

A single PMML file can be used to represent data transformations and well as the model itself. In doing so, PMML brings data transformations and statistical models together.

PMML allows for the definition of a data dictionary which is used to define all the raw data fields coming into the model, including missing value strategy and outlier treatment.

Several data transformations can also be expressed in PMML which can be used to extract feature detectors from the raw data.

On the other hand, post-processing of results allows for tailored decisions.

Slide 7

So, here it is, R … The R GUI is very simple.

Imagine that we want to build a neural network model to solve the Iris classification problem. In this case, all we need to do is upload the R neural network package NNET.

We then assign the data file containing the IRIS data set to the R object we called Iris.

And call NNET with the right parameters which include the data set used to train the model as well as the size of the hidden layer. We assign the network to the R object IrisNet

Once trained, this network can be easily exported into PMML. We need to upload the PMML package first and then call it with our neural network object as a parameter.

Slide 8


Here is your PMML code. Hot from the oven!

Note the data dictionary which contains a description of the four input variables used to train the model.

Also note that in this simple example, there were no data transformations. We are using the input data AS IS.

Slide 9

So, you did all your data analysis, built your model and generate PMML using R … but what now?

What can you do if you need to execute this model on a Iris Field and use it in real-time?

Slide 10

This is where a predictive analytics scoring engine fits in. We are going to use ADAPA here as an example.

ADAPA allows for data transformations and models to be uploaded and executed in real time via web-services calls.

It is an environment to manage and execute not only one but many predictive models and rule sets.

ADAPA is not a model building environment. We used R for that!

Slide 11

This is a screen-shot of the ADAPA management console.

PMML files are easily uploaded and maintained through this interface.

Note that several models have already been uploaded into ADAPA including the IRIS Neural Network model we just built using R.

Slide 12

Once a model is uploaded, it needs to be validated. This is accomplished via a score matching test.

In this case we uploaded 150 IRIS data records containing the input variables as well as the expected output. ADAPA will then compare and match computed and expected values.

If any mismatches are found, ADAPA allows for complete traceability of its internal decisions.

Slide 1

Great! I just showed you how to Easy Express and Execute Data Mining Models using PMML … all in 6 steps.

R allows for Data Analysis, Model Building, and PMML Export.

PMML can then be uploaded into a compliant decision engine.

Data reaches the engine via web-service calls.

And in so doing,

Model execution is performed in real-time.

Slide 14 - Thank you!

More Analytics Moves to the Amazon Cloud

Please see James Taylor's excellent blog "More Analytics in the Cloud" regarding an announcement related to cloud computing and analytics. Mathematica and MATLAB are following Zementis and now offer solutions on Amazon EC2 that focus on complex and computationally intensive applications.

We launched our ADAPA predictive analytics decision engine on EC2 which allows users to deploy, integrate, and execute statistical scoring models, e.g., using algorithms like neural networks, support vector machine (SVM), decision tree, clustering models, naive bayes classifiers and various regression models.

Finally, companies have the option to save a lot of software licensing cost by buying predictive analytics like books, under a cost effective pay-as-you-go SaaS license model.

It is great to see more mathematical applications migrate to the cloud. This is one of the best opportunities where cloud computing can reduce cost and complexity of implementing computational efforts in HPC, large-scale simulations, and predictive analytics.

Tuesday, November 11, 2008

R to PMML Export Video Tutorial

We created a brief video to demonstrate how easy it is to export PMML from R. The Predictive Model Markup Language is the industry standard which allows you to exchange statistical models between a variety of software solutions.

[High Res Video: Exporting PMML from R]

This example walks through the steps required to create a neural network model for the Iris classification problem and then export the model as a PMML file. Once exported in PMML format, the model is ready to be deployed and executed, e.g., in the Zementis ADAPA scoring engine.

To follow this example, you will need to download the PMML package, and the Iris.csv data file.

Please refer to the following articles for a more comprehensive introduction to PMML and additional information about PMML export for R.

Tuesday, November 4, 2008

The Synergy of Rules and Predictive Analytics

While attending the Business Rules Forum 2008 in Orlando, it was apparent that many of the rules engine vendors have discovered the value of predictive analytics and consider supporting the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) standard. As part of the Enterprise Decision Management track of the conference, Zementis presented on open source, open standards, and cloud computing under the title of Agile Deployment of Predictive Analytics Using Amazon EC2.

The synergies of rules and predictive models form the foundation for an Enterprise Decision Management strategy. While rules describe explicit knowledge, predictive analytics leverages implicit knowledge that is embedded in your data.

At Zementis, we have long combined rules and predictive models for better decisions. Our ADAPA decisioning engine seamlessly integrates the Drools rules engine. If you are already using Drools, you can effectively deploy predictive models in your business process with minimal effort.

Even if you are using a rules engine from Ilog, Corticon, or another rules engine vendor, ADAPA provides an easy, SOA-based integration via web services. Predictive analytics does not have to be complex or costly to deploy, if you follow open standards and leverage best-of-breed solutions.

Want to learn more about combining rules and predictive analytics? Please contact us!

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

List of PMML consumers and producers

Ever wonder what statistical packages out there consume and produce PMML? And if so, what techniques are supported? With the help of the DMG, we have compiled a table of PMML compliant companies and software. Check it out here (table entries are shown in alphabetical order).

If your company or software is not listed in the table, please let us know and we will update it. Thanks!

Friday, October 10, 2008

Problems uploading or converting your file in ADAPA?

If you run into problems, make sure to contact us. We can help you resolve them! Sometimes, problems can be as simple as uploading the wrong file (test file whenever you want to upload a model file). Other times, it has to do with the model file exported from your statistical package. Sometimes, these packages do not really follow the PMML schema. So, let us know.

Monday, October 6, 2008

What type of decision tree models built with R can I export to PMML?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Wednesday, May 21, 2008

What is an ADAPA instance?

For the definition of an ADAPA instance on the Amazon Cloud, click HERE.

Tuesday, May 20, 2008

What is the scoop behind PMML and Amazon EC2?

Organizations increasingly recognize the value that predictive analytics offers to their business. The complexity of development, integration, and deployment of predictive models, however, is often considered cost-prohibitive for many projects. In light of mature open source solutions, open standards, and SOA principles we propose an agile model development life cycle that allows us to quickly leverage predictive analytics in operational environments.

Starting with data analysis and model development, you can effectively use the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) standard, to move complex decision models from the scientist's desktop into a scalable production environment hosted on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2).

Expressing Models in PMML

PMML is an XML-based language used to define predictive models. It was specified by the Data Mining Group, an independent group of leading technology companies including Zementis. By providing a uniform standard to represent such models, PMML allows for the exchange of predictive solutions between different applications and various vendors.

Open source statistical tools such as R can be used to develop data mining models based on historical data. R allows for models to be exported into PMML which can then be imported into an operational decision platform and be ready for production use in a matter of minutes.

On-Demand Predictive Analytics

Amazon EC2 is a reliable, on-demand infrastructure on which we offer the ADAPA® (Adaptive Decision And Predictive Analytics) Predictive Decisioning Engine based on the Software as a Service (SaaS) paradigm. ADAPA imports models expressed in PMML and executes these in batch mode, or real-time via web-services.

Our service is implemented as a private, dedicated Amazon EC2 instance of ADAPA. Each client has access to his/her own ADAPA Engine instance via HTTP/HTTPS. In this way, models and data for one client never share the same engine with other clients.

The ADAPA Control Center

In order to have ADAPA readily available on Amazon EC2, we built the ADAPA Control Center application which allows for the user launch and manage all ADAPA instances from a single location (see figure below).

Our service easily scales together with the client’s organizational needs for more power and predictive analytics resources. From the ADAPA Control Center, one can launch new as well as terminate existing instances. Amazon EC2 offers five different instances’ types to address different processing needs. These are: small, large, extra-large, and high-CPU (medium and extra-large) as well as high-memory (extra-large, double extra-large, and quadruple extra-large). Also, whenever an instance is no longer necessary, it can be terminated in a matter of seconds.

The ADAPA Console

Each instance executes a single version of the ADAPA engine, which can be easily accessed through the Control Center. The engine itself is accessible through the ADAPA Console which allows for the easy managing of predictive models and data files. The instance owner can use the console to upload new models as well as score or classify records on data files in batch mode. Real-time execution of models is achieved through the use of web-services. The ADAPA Console offers a very intuitive interface which is divided into two main sections: model and data management. These allow for existing models to be used for generating decisions on different data sets. Also, new models can be easily uploaded and existing models can be removed in a matter of seconds.

Using a SaaS solution to break down traditional barriers that currently slow the adoption of predictive analytics, our strategy translates predictive models into operational assets with minimal deployment costs and leverages the inherent scalability of utility computing.

In summary, ADAPA revolutionizes the world of predictive analytics, since it allows for:

  • Cost-effective and reliable service based on Amazon’s EC2 infrastructure

  • Secure execution of predictive models through dedicated and controlled instances including HTTPS and Web-Services security

  • On-demand computing. Choice of instance type (small, large, and extra-large) and launch of multiple instances.

  • Superior time-to-market by providing rapid deployment of predictive models and an agile enterprise decision management environment.

Friday, May 9, 2008

How does ADAPA handle missing values for Decision Trees?

PMML offers many different strategies for the handling of missing values in Decision Trees. ADAPA supports all of them. These are:

  • lastPrediction

  • nullPrediction

  • defaultChild

  • weightedConfidence

  • aggregateNodes

  • none (default strategy)

For information on each strategy, please visit, for example, the PMML 3.2 Decision Trees specification page at the Data Mining Group website.

Thursday, May 8, 2008

How can I use the ADAPA Control Center?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

How can I use the ADAPA Console?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

What are the benefits of running ADAPA on Amazon EC2?

ADAPA can be used in different ways for a variety of decisioning solutions. Whereas ADAPA on Site can be deployed on-site through a server install or on your private cloud, ADAPA on the Cloud is being offered as a service through the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2).

Amazon EC2 is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the Cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier. Amazon EC2 provides you with complete control of your computing resources and lets you run on Amazon's proven computing environment.

By utilizing the ADAPA Control Center, you can launch and terminate a new ADAPA instance in minutes which allows you to quickly scale capacity, both up and down, as your computing requirements change.

Finally, by offering ADAPA on Amazon EC2 as a service changes the economics of predictive analytics by allowing you to pay only for computing that you actually use. What a concept ... huh?

What is the ADAPA Console and how can I access it?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Does ADAPA support decision trees?

Yes, decision trees are part of the modeling elements supported by ADAPA (to see a list of all techniques click here).

You can build your decision tree model with different training algorithms, export the tree as a PMML file (or convert the resulting model to PMML), and upload it into ADAPA for decisioning.

Does ADAPA support all modeling techniques specified in PMML?

We are constantly working towards that goal. Currently, ADAPA supports several PMML elements, including pre- and post-processing elements.

As for modeling techniques it currently supports the following PMML elements:
  • Neural Networks
  • Support Vector Machines
  • Association Rules
  • Regression
  • General Regression
  • Decision Trees
  • Clustering Models
  • Naive Bayes Classifiers
  • Ruleset Models
  • Multiple models (ensembles, segmentation, and model composition)
If you are interested in using ADAPA but the PMML element you use is not listed in here, feel free to contact us.

If you are unsure about what a PMML element represents, please check the DMG (Data Mining Group) webpage which defines PMML . Also, take a look at the feature list for the ADAPA Predictive Analytics Engine for a full feature list of all the PMML elements supported.

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

What is the ADAPA Control Center and how can I access it?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

How do I get the access keys required to run the paid version of ADAPA in the Amazon Cloud?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

How do I manage my Amazon Web Services account?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

How do I manage my ADAPA subscription with Amazon?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Wednesday, April 16, 2008

ADAPA's computed value is not the same as the expected value, why is that?

There are many reasons for the validation test to fail. I can think of two main reasons.

1) The model ADAPA loaded and executed may be different than the model you built in your development environment. This may reflect a problem with ADAPA or see below.

2) It may be the case that the PMML file you got out of your model development environment does not really represent all aspects of the model or is problematic semantically speaking.

In both cases, you can try to follow ADAPA's decisions by clicking on the row id for the record you want to look at in the ADAPA Console (see figure below - orange arrow points to row id 3). The row id is a hyperlink and will allow you to download a text file containing a log of computations. This may be very helpful in determining why ADAPA generated the value(s) it did.

Also, the problem may have to do with your data validation file itself. It may be the case that you generated your model in SPSS, for example, exported it as a PMML file and uploaded it into ADAPA. So far so good, but how about the data? If you saved your data in SPSS as well, you have to make sure you saved the expected value or prediction with the correct name. SPSS usually calls this value "PRE_1." You will need to change the name of this variable to the name of the predicted variable defined in the PMML file. Also, if your data contains the original target used to build the model, you will need to rename it to something different than the predicted variable. Your new predicted variable now should be the predicted result you got out of SPSS or any model development environment you used to score the data in the first place.

Monday, April 7, 2008

Friday, March 21, 2008

Even when my model uploads successfully, I still get warnings. Is that OK?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Wednesday, March 19, 2008

What is the format I should use for my data file for batch scoring in ADAPA?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Wednesday, March 12, 2008

I am having problems converting PMML version 3.1 regression models generated in SPSS. Can you help?

Sometimes, unreadable characters are introduced into the XML file exported from SPSS for some regression models (PMML element GeneralRegression).

This happens usually when the PMML tag on the top of the file refers to instead of

Whenever a file containing unreadable character is uploaded to the PMML Converter, an error will be produced with the following message: "This is not an xml file". In cases like this, we suggest you locate where any unreadable characters may be located and delete them before conversion. If you have more specific information about this problem, please let us know.

Wednesday, February 27, 2008

Converting older versions of PMML - Supported modeling elements.

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Friday, February 22, 2008

Can I export my Weka model into PMML?

Weka does not export models into PMML. However, it allows for certain models to be imported.

Can I export my SAS model into PMML?

Yes, you can. SAS Enterprise Miner exports PMML for a variety of modeling techniques, including neural networks. Please note that depending on the version of Enterprise Miner you have models are exported in an older version of PMML (PMML 2.1 or 3.1). These are automatically converted to latest version of PMML once uploaded into ADAPA.

If you only have the base SAS product, you will probably need to export your model to PMML by writing your own script. Feel free to contact us for tips and help on how to do that.

Thursday, February 21, 2008

How can I export PMML from SPSS Statistics?

In newer versions of SPSS Statistics (I believe starting with version 14), you can export many different modeling techniques into PMML. For some techniques, it also exports the transformations that are applied to the input data before the model is built.

In SPSS Statistics version 16 and beyond, you can export PMML for neural networks (back-propagation and radial-basis) by selecting the Export tab on the model building menu. Note that scaling of numerical variables and dummy-fication of categorical variables is expressed in the resulting PMML file under the TransformationDictionary element.

Tuesday, February 19, 2008

How can I represent scaling of numerical variables in PMML?

You can scale numerical variables by using transformations in PMML. These can be part of the TransformationDictionary or LocalTransformations elements. For neural networks, numerical transformations can also be done in the NeuralInputs element (as well as the NeuralOutputs element).

For example, the transformation element NormContinuous can be used to implement simple normalization functions such as the z-score transformation (X - m ) / s, where m is the mean value and s is the standard deviation.

Pleaser, refer to the transformations page of the dmg website for PMML examples.

Monday, February 11, 2008

Can I upload multiple models into ADAPA?

Yes, you can. ADAPA supports deployment of multiple models.

Once your model(s) is uploaded successfully, it is ready to be used, either via the ADAPA Console and the Excel add-in in batch-mode or through Web Services in real-time.

If you have a model already in place, ADAPA will throw an error if you try to upload another model with the same name (the name of a model is specified inside the PMML file in its model element).

ADAPA also supports composing of multiple models into a single model. This important feature supports a variety of model composition cases such as model segmentation, composition, ensembles, and chaining.

For examples and instructions on how to represent model composition in PMML and ADAPA, please refer to the book "PMML in Action" available at

What happens if my data contains records with missing values? Will ADAPA score such records anyway?

If an input value is missing in a given data record and the value is part of an active PMML input variable (as defined in the Mining Schema element), then ADAPA will try to replace the missing value by the replacement value specified in the Mining Schema. So, if you get a score back for a data record containing missing values, that's because ADAPA is replacing the missing values by the replacement values specified in your PMML file.

I mentioned "try" before because you may have not specified a replacement value in the mining schema. If that is the case, ADAPA will not produce a score for the given data record with missing data.

This is slightly different than what is implied by PMML itself (see the mining schema PMML element), but we feel it gives the user better control over what ADAPA should do in case of missing values. In this way, if your model is a neural network model, for example, you will need to explicitly define the replacement value to be zero for every input if that is what you want. This is in contrast to having ADAPA do that in an automatic way for every type of modeling technique.

Click here to learn more on how missing values are handled in decision trees.

Friday, February 8, 2008

ADAPA refuses to upload my model, what should I do?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

How can I test my model once it is successfully uploaded into ADAPA?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Does ADAPA support all aspects of the Neural Network PMML element?

Almost all. ADAPA does not support Neural Networks with recurrent connections.

What is PMML and how can I learn more about it?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

What is ADAPA anyway?

ADAPA (Adaptive Decision And Predictive Analytics) is a predictive decisioning platform. It combines the power of predictive analytics and business rules to facilitate the tasks of managing and designing automated decisions systems.

As a scoring engine, ADAPA supports the PMML standard (versions 2.0 to 4.2). In this way, different data mining models can be uploaded into the engine and executed in real-time or batch mode.

For a more detailed list of features, feel free to take a look at the ADAPA page. If you are still unsure about any of the features or would like to learn more about it, drop us a note or give us a call. You can find our contact information in the contacts page of the Zementis website.

What kind of activation functions for Neural Networks are supported by ADAPA?

ADAPA supports all the PMML list of activation functions for the Neural Network model element.

In PMML, activations functions are divided into two groups. Group 1 contains the following functions:
  • threshold
  • logistic
  • tanh
  • identity
  • exponential
  • reciprocal
  • square
  • Gauss
  • sine
  • cosine
  • Elliott
  • arctan
Group 2 contains only one function:
  • radialBasis
For more details, please take a look, for example, at the PMML 4.0 Neural Network specification.

What types of Neural Network models built with R nnet can I export to PMML?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Does ADAPA support all general regression PMML models?

Yes, ADAPA supports the entire list of general regression PMML model elements. These are:
  • regression
  • generalLinear
  • multinomialLogistic
  • ordinalMultinomial
  • generalizedLinear
  • CoxRegression
ADAPA also supports all the link and cumulative link functions as defined in PMML 4.0 for general regression models.

Note that if you export regression models from SPSS, these will be in the general regression format.

SVM element in PMML allows for multiclass-classification

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

What types of regression models built with R can I export to PMML?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

What types of SVM models built with R ksvm can I export to PMML?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

Thursday, February 7, 2008

How can I export PMML code from R?

This posting has been moved to the Zementis Support Site. You can still access it by clicking HERE.

How can I export PMML code from older versions of SPSS?

In older versions of SPSS, like SPSS 11.5, a linear regression model can be exported to PMML by going through the following sequence of menus: Analyze -> Regression -> Linear... -> Save... You will find yourself in box "Linear Regression: Save". Enter the file name and location you want the PMML file to be written to in "Export model information to XML file" at the bottom of the "Save" box.

After the model is trained, a file will be created in the specified location containing a PMML representation of your linear regression model. A similar sequence of actions and results should work for Multinomial Logistic models.

Important things to notice about the PMML file:

1) The model is represented as a general regression PMML element;

2) For SPSS versions up to version 14, data transformations are not part of the PMML file. Therefore, you will need to add any data transformations manually. You can use the Transformation Generator tool to graphically design your transformations and then paste the resulting PMML code into your file.

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